Financing Resources

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Regional Transportation Investments: A Vision for Metro Vancouver Mayors’ Council on Regional Transportation
This report summarizes the investment proposal establishes spending priorities for Metro Vancouver’s transportation network and recommends new funding mechanisms to support them. It was developed at the request of the Province of BC, and developed with the support of TransLink. Additional support documents are also available, including summaries by region and the finer details of the plan.


2012: What do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options to Support Public Transit, Highways, and Local Streets and Roads? Results from Year 3 of a National Survey Mineta Transportation Institute
This report presents the replication of an MTI study conducted in 2001 by Peter Haas and Richard Werbel. That research, itself a continuation of an earlier project completed in 2000, included an analysis of transportation tax elections in 11 urban areas across the nation and culminated in the identification of 17 community-level factors with potential impact on the success of ballot measures for sales tax increases to fund transportation packages with substantial rail components.


2013: What do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options to Support Public Transit, Highways, and Local Streets and Roads? Results from Year Four of a National Survey Mineta Transportation Institute
This report summarizes the results of a national random-digit-dial public opinion poll that asked 1,519 respondents if they would support various tax options for raising federal transportation revenues, with a special focus on understanding support for increasing revenues for public transit.


Carbon Taxation and Fiscal Consolidation: the Potential of Carbon Pricing to Reduce Europe’s Fiscal Deficits European Climate Foundation and Green Budget Europe
The overriding challenge for many European governments today is to reduce major fiscal deficits with the least collateral damage to the economy. This report shows that carbon fiscal measures may raise significant revenues while having a less detrimental macro-economic impact than other tax options.


A Decision-Support Framework For Using Value Capture to Fund Public Transit: Lessons From Project-Specific Analyses Mineta Transportation Institute
Local and state governments provide 75 percent of transit funds in the United States. With all levels of governments under significant fiscal stress, any new transit funding mechanism is welcome. Value capture (VC) is one such mechanism. Based on the “benefits received” principle, VC involves the identification and capture of public infrastructure-led increase in land value.


An Economic and Life Cycle Analysis of Regional Land Use and Transportation Plans Mineta Transportation Institute
This paper will examine the economic theory and other key reasons supporting taxes, user fees and other funding sources to support the enhancement and expansion of transportation infrastructure and also meet capital and operating costs, with an emphasis on the funding of sustainable modes including transit, walking and cycling.


An Examination of the Theory and Practicality of Alternative and Realistic Funding Sources for Transportation, with an Emphasis on Transit and Other Sustainable Modes Bill Lambert
This paper will examine the economic theory and other key reasons supporting taxes, user fees and other funding sources to support the enhancement and expansion of transportation infrastructure and also meet capital and operating costs, with an emphasis on the funding of sustainable modes including transit, walking and cycling.


Factors Influencing Voting Results of Local Transportation Funding Initiatives with a Substantial Transit Component: Case Studies of Ballot Measures in Eleven Communities Mineta Transportation Institute
This research project seeks to identify factors contributing to the success, as well as those contributing to the failure, of local transportation ballot measures with a substantial passenger rail component.


Funding Urban Public Transport: Case Study Compendium The International Transport Forum, OECD
This compendium of case studies serves to illustrate a variety of urban contexts, public transport service services and funding mechanisms in a selection of International Transport Forum countries.


“Green” Transportation Taxes and Fees: A Survey Of Californians Mineta Transportation Institute

This report explores public opinion on a new and promising concept—green transportation taxes and fees. These are taxes and fees set at variable rates, with higher rates for more polluting vehicles and lower rates for those that pollute less. This approach to transportation taxes and fees adapts the traditional transportation finance system to achieve two critical public benefits at once: encouraging drivers to choose more environmentally-friendly transportation options and raising revenue for needed transportation programs.


Local Funding Options for Public Transportation Victoria Transport Policy Institute
This report evaluates eighteen potential local funding options suitable to help finance public transit or other transportation projects and services. They are evaluated according to eight criteria, including potential revenue, predictability and sustainability, horizontal and vertical equity, travel impacts, strategic development objectives, public acceptance and ease of implementation.


Millennials & Mobility: Understanding the Millennial Mindset and New Opportunities for Transit Providers Transportation Research Board of the National Academies
The objectives of this research project were to (1) explain trends in residential location, life style, and travel behavior of Generation Y and examine their implications for public transportation and (2) present strategies that transit agencies can pursue to promote increased and sustained use of public transportation by Generation Y. The strategies, which should be targeted to younger adults, may include enhancements to services, increased emphasis on multi-modal connections (e.g., bike-share and car-sharing programs), new technology (e.g., real-time arrival information, fare collection systems, passenger feedback mechanisms), additional passenger amenities, and innovative marketing practices.


More Development for Your Transit Dollar:
An Analysis of 21 North American Transit Corridors
Institute for Transportation and Development Policy
The purpose of this report is to systematically document the extent to which bus rapid transit (BRT) and llight rail transit (LRT) systems and streetcars in the US and Canada have stimulated development and to explore the factors that have contributed to their success.


A Paradigm Shift Towards Sustainable Low-Carbon Transport Institute for Transportation and Development Policy
The paper is an initial attempt to identify the challenges and actions needed to finance the paradigm shift towards sustainable, low-carbon transport in developing countries. It is meant to be a living document, to which further work by SLoCaT members can be added.


Regional Transit Local Funding Options Metro Atlanta Chamber

This report describes the results of a study commissioned by the Victoria Regional Transit Commission (VRTC) and the Capital Regional District (CRD) to identify and evaluate potential local funding options to help finance major public transit improvements in the Capital Regional District.


Saving Lives with Sustainable Transport

This issue brief reviews evidence of the safety benefits of sustainable transport, with a particular focus on the applicability of these findings to cities in developing countries. Where the information is available, we also provide estimates of the magnitude of safety benefits that have been recorded for specific projects.


Systematic Procedures to Determine Incentive/Disincentive Dollar Amounts for Highway Transportation Construction Projects Mineta Transportation Institute
This research performed a literature review related to the determination of daily I/D dollar amounts. Caltrans I/D project data were then collected and evaluated. Project performance data were analyzed with regard to project outcomes in two key areas: project time and project cost. Statistical analyses were performed to identify the impact of I/D dollar amount on project time and cost performance.


A Tool for Assessing the Economic Impacts of Spending on Public Transit National Center for Transit Research
The primary objective of this research was to develop a simple tool for users to estimate the economic impacts of spending on transit. Expanding this tool for the transportation benefits of transit investments is a potential future research area.


Transportation Financing Opportunities for the State of California Mineta Transportation Institute

This report analyzes a range of alternative sources of revenue, as well as different finance options. The research is based upon reviews of existing literature, interviews with key stakeholders, and two statewide phone surveys. The facility-based sources considered were toll roads and lanes, truck-only toll lanes, privatized rest areas, and public-private partnerships.


Transportation Investment Act Final Report ‐ Approved Investment List Atlanta Regional Commission

The Transportation Investment Act of 2010 (TIA 2010) provides a legal mechanism in which regions throughout the state have the ability to impose a 1% sales tax to fund needed transportation improvements within their region.

Why Campaigns for Local Transportation Initiatives Succeed or Fail: An Analysis of Four Communities and National Data Mineta Transportation Institute
The purpose of this report is to use both approaches, statistical analysis of community-level characteristics and more qualitatively focused case studies, to explore what determines the success of local transportation-related tax measures.

Other Financing Resources



Massachusetts Transportation Funding Learning Series Cambridge Systematics, Inc.

A presentation on Massachusetts Transportation Funding.


Thinking Outside the Farebox: Creative Approaches to Financing Transit Projects Transportation for America
This guidebook is designed to help community leaders get from Point A—the desire to meet the demand for transit—to Point B—raising the money needed to build and operate it.


Transportation Investment Survey Ipsos Reid

This research was commissioned by the City of Toronto to collect feedback from Toronto residents regarding a number of options for financing transportation expansion.